Often at the reception at the gynecologist patients are offered to carry out this technique. The unfamiliar word is often very scary, causing a lot of questions. What is this procedure and what is it for?
This is a gynecological method for the study of female genital organs. This is a direct examination of the internal structures of the reproductive sphere under magnification. With the help of a special optical device, such a procedure becomes possible - the increase occurs several dozen times.
This method of examination is referred to as purely medical procedures, because it is performed exclusively by a doctor for the purpose of additional examination of mucous structures. The method is really unique and in demand - allows you to identify minimal primary changes that can not be noticed when viewed with the naked eye.
We are talking about a microscope, which is specially designed for the study of non-contact method. The device has a fairly simple structure. The doctor freely sets up the device near the patient, selecting the most convenient location for better study.
The optical part of the apparatus is a prismatic plan of binoculars with interchangeable eyepieces. The stereoscopic part of the device is equipped with an additional illuminator.
The procedure is widely used in modern practice, because it is a quick and affordable way to identify lesions, to conduct a general assessment of the condition of the mucosa. The technique allows taking smears and biopsy for further diagnosis.
Indications for the procedure
When is the procedure applied? Doctors often prescribe colposcopy to clarify the genesis of a process. This may be an incomprehensible reddish speck, a strange tumor. The technique is appointed if, according to cytological research, rather abnormal, even abnormal data are obtained. Always colposcopy is applicable for confirmed papillomatosis, before performing a biopsy.
It is better not to delay the procedure. Timely diagnosis of the slightest changes will prevent the development of a serious, deadly disease.
Manipulation is performed to determine the need for biopsy. The method of diagnosis during pregnancy is mandatory. It will not cause any harm to the future baby, however, will allow to monitor the state of the pregnant.
The procedure is performed in the supine position. The patient lies on the gynecological chair. The doctor places a special mirror in the vagina for subsequent examination of the mucous with a colposcope. During the procedure, it is possible to zoom in or out of the apparatus itself, rock it with a mirror, and clean the channel of secretions. It is important to note that the device itself remains outside. It is located at a distance, so that there will definitely not be any uncomfortable, especially painful sensations.
What is estimated?
First of all, they always examine and evaluate the relief of the mucous structures. Takes into account the color of tissues, the nature and characteristics of the vessels, the structure and development of the glands. If atypical tumors are detected, their structure and boundaries are clearly studied. This type of inspection due to the increase is more efficient.
Moreover, against the background of colposcopy, there is often a need for the collection of diagnostic material. Even the diagnostic minimum of colposcopy is distinguished. This is a study of urogenital secretions, cytological data. Under the control of the apparatus, materials are collected — the technique is highly accurate. The procedure is completely painless. With the help of special brushes, epithelial structures are collected from 2 places. The cervical canal and the surface of the cervix are best suited. When dysplastic changes are detected, an additional, targeted fence is taken from the most modified areas. The technique allows you to more accurately diagnose the degree and intensity of the lesion.
Preparing for colposcopy
Immediately before the procedure, preparation is not needed. It is not carried out in the period of menstruation and in the middle of the cycle itself. It is best to perform the procedure 2-4 days after the end of menstruation, or before its start.
On the eve you should not douche, refuse sexual intercourse. You should also not use tampons.
Varieties of methods
A simple inspection with a colposcope is the most common. He, in fact, is simple, exclusively reviewing colposcopy.
Sometimes this study is not enough, many experts consider it to be little effective for the diagnosis of complex lesions. For a better, in-depth diagnosis, additional tests are used. In such cases, colposcopy turns into an extended one. It happens additionally colpomicroscopy - histological diagnosis of the vagina. So you can accurately determine the pathological changes. The results of the histological and colpomicroscopic method of diagnosis have the highest percentages of matches.
In addition, in many private centers and clinics the achievement of the survey went further. Now you can do video-colposcopy. During the diagnostics, the image is displayed on the screen, it is possible to take pictures, record video procedures. The patient sees the course of the procedure along with the doctor.
In the course of the extended study, a number of diagnostic tests are used to objectively assess and diagnose serious lesions. These include:
- Acetic acid test. After application it may cause a burning sensation in the vagina, which will pass quickly. One can clearly see the boundary between flat and cylindrical epithelium.
- Schiller's test with Lugol's solution. It is used exclusively in the absence of a reaction to iodine. Normal squamous epithelium evenly turns brown, abnormal areas are slightly stained.
For further histological examination, elements are taken during a biopsy.
At the end of the study, the doctor must fill out a colposcopy protocol with preliminary confinement. The patient is given recommendations for clinical examination or therapy.
Is there a danger of the procedure?
The technique is completely safe, painless. With the extended method, there may be a minimal burning sensation from contact with acidic elements. Rarely, but still during the procedure, complications may occur. These include heavy bleeding, pain in the lower abdomen, infectious lesion. Therefore, if after the procedure there is a chill, fever, severe pain in the lower abdomen - urgent medical care is important.
Contraindications to manipulation
This kind of procedure is completely safe, because it does not harm the body. It is often prescribed even in the period of childbearing. There are no special contraindications to the implementation of the research technique.
The only restriction is that the procedure is never carried out in the early postpartum period (usually the first months after birth). The procedure immediately after destructive or surgical treatment of the uterus is not recommended. But these contraindications are only temporary.
There is a single absolute contraindication - intolerance to acetic acid or iodine element.
The effectiveness of the technique
Today, such a manipulation is considered to be accurate in terms of the study of endometriosis, polyposis, oncological processes and precancerous conditions.
Normally, the epithelial region is light pink, shiny and smooth. Benign changes are characterized by true erosion, ectopia.
After the procedure
It often happens that a few days there is a slight bleeding. Syringes are not recommended until stabilization. Do not use tampons, you must refrain from intercourse.
It is important to understand that only after a comprehensive examination it is possible to make a final diagnosis. A colposcopy with a cytological component allows only to understand the essence of the problem, but it is not enough for the diagnosis of these methods. It is important to conduct a comprehensive survey to understand the global nature of the process.
The technique is really in demand, allows not only to diagnose, but to plan further tactics of treatment of the cervix, if necessary, correctly interpret the norm and pathology.