Mushrooms, or rather half of them edible, are useful and nutritious forest dwellers, which from mid-summer until the end of autumn can be harvested, cooked and harvested for the winter. For not very experienced mushroom pickers, the harvest season partly becomes a lottery, because almost every edible mushroom has a dangerous double - a poisonous mushroom. Chanterelle is no exception - she has a poisonous twin sister.
Real chanterelles are very beneficial for the body, as they contain a significant amount of vitamin C, carotene and polysaccharides. Chanterelles improve liver function, promote the excretion of salts of heavy metals from the body, and also have an anthelmintic effect. In addition, they calmly endure heavy rains and dry summer months - the mushrooms do not decay and do not dry out, and for the time of the special heat they simply stop growing, waiting for it in such a "preserved" state.
False chanterelles are conditionally edible species, that is, you can eat them, but before that the harmful substances that they contain must be neutralized: this kind of chanterelles must be soaked and cooked in a special way. They cannot boast of special benefits for the body; their taste qualities also do not make them a demanded delicacy. Some mushroom pickers collect them specifically to prepare them, for example, pickles for the winter.
However, most often this mushroom enters the basket by accident, unknowingly, and can cause some unpleasant symptoms of poisoning. In order not to fall into this situation, you need to know how to distinguish a false fox from a real one.
True and False Chanterelles: Similarities and Differences
Both species of chanterelles grow in a wooded area: in coniferous and coniferous-deciduous forests. A real fox likes to lurk in moss or under leaves, can grow in an open area of soil or on a mossy stump. The false variety is found in moss, on fallen rotting trees, on forest litter. False chanterelle can grow in groups or alone. The real chanterelle does not occur in one piece, but grows in close groups, so when you meet a single mushroom in the entire clearing, you should carefully look at it - it might be better not to touch it. In addition, a healthy mushroom is a frequent inhabitant of the soil near pines, oaks, beech and spruce.
The main difference of the chanterelles, which immediately catches your eye - the poisonous bright orange hat with the edges of a lighter, reddish color. The useful look has a uniform light yellow or orange-yellow color, while the younger the mushroom, the paler its color looks.
A hat for a false chanterelle of a regular round shape in the form of a funnel, with rounded edges and a velvet-to-touch surface, unlike its useful sister - the hat is always wavy, has a smooth surface and a larger diameter.
Another external feature is the leg. In a useful mushroom, it is thicker, does not have a clear transition to a hat. Usually it is the same color as the whole mushroom, or slightly lighter. It is not hollow inside. Thick and dense plates of the cap are moving on the leg.
A thin and straight leg of a reddish-brown or brownish color immediately produces a false fox. Between the cap and the leg is visually noticeable border transition. Hat plates are frequent and thin, have a bright orange color.
For those who do not fully rely on their own eyes, the smell remains. False mushrooms have a sharply unpleasant odor, which is difficult to confuse with the aroma of good mushrooms.
If the mushroom is already in the basket, you can determine its suitability for use with a knife - if you make a cut on the leg and press it, the whitish flesh of this mushroom will turn slightly pink. False chanterelles have a yellow or orange slice and do not change color.
A sign that will become noticeable as soon as the mushroom is in the hands is the presence of parasites in it. The real fox is not affected by them, as it contains a substance - chitinmannose, which repels insects and pests. If the mushroom is springy and wormy, then this is definitely a false relative of an edible species.
Taste properties and use in cooking
Usually, both doctors and mushroom pickers advise against picking this variety of mushrooms, except in very extreme cases, when it is simply impossible to find others.
However, strangely enough, the false fox has its fans. Basically, reviews about their taste are not the most flattering - they are fresh, viscous and have a not very pleasant smell. But some mushroom pickers still collect and harvest this type of mushroom, pickling or pickling them for the winter.
The main rule of their preparation is full primary processing. First of all, the mushrooms must be thoroughly washed and sorted, it is better to throw out the spoiled and exuded by insects. After that, they must be soaked for three days in clean water. Twice a day, morning and evening, the water needs to be changed. After this procedure, they are boiled in boiling water with onion for about 15-20 minutes.
Drying them is usually useless, but you can fry, stew, marinate, or prepare mushroom sauce with them.
Recipes with false chanterelles
Delicious dishes can be prepared not only from healthy and edible mushrooms. There are a number of recipes using these conditionally edible mushrooms.
Mushroom julienne is especially delicious when cooked in portioned pots. For him, you need:
- 500 g of mushrooms;
- 1 cup sour cream 15% fat;
- 50 g of hard cheese;
- 2 tablespoons of olive oil;
- 1 teaspoon flour;
- salt, pepper, seasoning to taste.
Prepared mushrooms are poured with boiling water and allowed to drain water. Onions are cut in half rings, mushrooms - straws of medium size. First the onions are lightly fried in a pan, mushrooms are added to them, the mixture is salted, peppered, seasonings are added and they are stewed until half cooked under the lid. Add flour to the future dish and, stirring constantly, wait until it is browned. Mushrooms with onions and flour are laid out in pots, filling about 2/3 of the volume. Then they are poured with sour cream and put in the oven for 5 minutes at a temperature of 180 degrees. After this, the dish is sprinkled with grated cheese and again sent to the oven until the cheese is melted. Serve it hot.
Pickled mushrooms are harvested for the winter - a similar snack takes pride of place on the tables next to sauerkraut and pickles. It can be prepared from false chanterelles.
For 1 liter of marinade you need:
- 1 teaspoon sugar;
- 1/2 tablespoon of salt;
- 2/3 cup of vinegar;
- 2 umbrella carnations;
- 1 bay leaf;
- 3-5 black peppercorns.
1 kilogram of mushrooms is pre-soaked and boiled, then boiled in new clean water for 30 minutes. Liquid is drained, sugar, salt and spices are added to it. Bay leaf is best kept in the marinade no more than 20 minutes. Next, vinegar is poured into the marinade, the mushrooms, together with the liquid, are sent to sterile glass jars and corked with lids. The product is stored in a dark cool place for no longer than 3 months.
Possible harm from using the product
False chanterelles do not cause fatal poisoning. Their unpleasant properties are neutralized by soaking and heat treatment. However, those who have problems with the digestive tract, it is better not to risk trying dishes with false chanterelles in the composition. Mushrooms themselves are hard to digest and poorly digestible food, they can cause a feeling of heaviness in the stomach and intestines, heartburn, nausea.
We must not forget about botulism - with improper and inadequate processing, unfair observance of conservation rules, there are chances to get infected with this deadly bacterium. The consequences of the disease can be very sad.
What to do if poisoning comes
For people with sensitive gastrointestinal tract, the use of false chanterelles can result in food poisoning of varying severity - it all depends on the amount of mushrooms eaten. Its main signs are indigestion, nausea, vomiting, in severe cases, the temperature may rise, chills, dizziness, and loss of consciousness appear. In any case, if after a meal with mushrooms such symptoms appear, the first aid will be gastric lavage. It is necessary to constantly drink warm boiled water in large quantities, causing vomiting until the stomach is empty. Of course, all this should happen after an ambulance is called, because mushroom poisonings are serious and can cause significant harm to human health.
False chanterelles are mushrooms that have been categorically forbidden to eat for a long time, considering them dangerous. Today they are referred to more or less edible products, however, in order to be able to cook dishes from false chanterelles to the table, they will have to tinker with them - soak and boil until the mushrooms become edible. Each lover of mushrooms and dishes from them decides for himself whether the efforts made are worth the result. Usually, the taste of the mushrooms themselves is not very impressive for the culinary specialists, however, they are used to make julienne, pies, sauces and pickles for the winter.