This ancient plant is known by various names. Someone calls him emmer, someone farro, someone spelled or two-grain wheat. And biologists call this culture in Latin Triticum dicoccum. And by the way, some people mistakenly call this plant spelled (it is also Triticcum spelta), however, in fact, these are two different cultures, albeit from the same family.
What is spelled
Spelled is a relict type of wheat, which is the "great-grandmother" for modern hard grains. People have consumed this cereal for thousands of years around the world. And today, it serves as a component of Middle Eastern, Ethiopian and Mediterranean cuisines. By the way, there is an opinion that it was in the Middle East that they first "domesticated" the wild spelled. But the spelled, with which Triticum dicoccum is often confused, is also an ancient cereal, but it is the ancestor of modern soft wheat varieties.
Spelled grains are recognized by several layers of the film on which the seeds are coated. These are the so-called spikelet flakes that grow to the grain (which is not present in modern varieties of hard and soft wheat). Because of this, spelled is more difficult to grind into flour. Meanwhile, biologists have taken care of removing the hollow spelled, the grains of which are devoid of the film familiar to culture.
Once spelled belonged to the most cultivated plants. This cereal was grown by the inhabitants of the Mediterranean, Phenicia, Ancient Egypt, the North Caucasus, and the Volga region. In the Roman Empire, two-grain was a daily diet for the poor, but the rich did not refuse this product. Moreover, Italians called this cereal the wheat of the Pharaohs, because in Egypt the spelled was also a huge success. However, over time, the popularity of dvuhzernanki began to decline. Humanity has learned about other grains that are more easily processed. And by the twentieth century, this culture seemed to be completely forgotten. Its place was taken by modern varieties. And now the popularity of spelled is growing again. And all because, as it turned out, it contains less gluten, which makes this grain an affordable product for people with celiac disease.
Benefits and Nutrition Facts
Gourmets adore this grain for a special taste with nutty notes. Nutritionists pay attention to spelling due to a small amount of gluten. This cereal is a useful source of protein, fiber, and many nutritional components such as magnesium and iron. By the way, two-corn grains contain much more minerals than other refined cereals.
Despite the fact that today many people are not even aware of the existence of spelled, this type of wheat is extremely useful. A serving of spelled porridge will provide impressive doses of proteins, B vitamins, zinc, and iron. In total, the list of nutrients consists of more than ten vitamins and minerals. Like other whole grains, spelled is an important source of complex carbohydrates, in particular fiber. There are more dietary fibers in the grains of this crop than in the more popular rice or quinoa.
|Calorie content||320 kcal|
Role for the body
Rich source of fiber
Very high portions of fiber make spelled a good product for the heart and digestion, regulate blood sugar and insulin production. Researchers have estimated that double-grain contains almost 4 times more cholesterol-lowering substances than white rice.
Also being unprocessed grain, which means a product with a high fiber content, farro quickly and for a long time provides a feeling of satiety. According to these indicators, two-grain is noticeably ahead of other types of grain, in particular peeled grain.
Scientists have long proven that regular consumption of fiber-rich foods helps clear arteries of plaque causing atherosclerosis. Another advantage of dietary fiber derived from spelled is that they improve digestion. Firstly, fiber is essential for the body to more quickly remove waste products. Secondly, this food component is important for maintaining a healthy intestinal microflora (fiber is the "food" for the beneficial bacteria that inhabit the colon).
Grain for immunity and heart
Like other whole grains, spelled supplies not only fiber, but also resistant starch, oligosaccharides and antioxidants, including phenolic compounds, necessary for the prevention of various diseases. Studies show that people whose menu has more whole grains are more resistant to the development of diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease.
Also in the composition of this grain, scientists found the so-called cyanogenic glucosides - substances that strengthen the immune system, regulate cholesterol and blood sugar. For this reason, nutritionists are increasingly advised to combine with meat, fatty or very salty foods not peeled cereals, but whole grains, such as spelled.
Good source of protein
But besides impressive portions of fiber, this ancient grain also contains many proteins. These grains provide a person with approximately the same amount of plant proteins as legumes, and this is much more than in other whole grains.
Interesting information for vegetarians: a combination of spelled and other plant foods will allow the formation of the so-called complete protein, that is, to collect a full complex of amino acids that are irreplaceable for humans. Peas, lentils, beans and other legumes have a similar effect. By the way, there are 18 essential amino acids in spelled.
Vitamins in spelled are represented mainly by substances of group B. In particular, thanks to the two-corn herd, it is possible to restore the reserves of vitamin B3 (niacin), which is necessary for proper metabolism. It is this vitamin that is responsible for the conversion of proteins, fats and carbohydrates from food to energy. Vitamin B2, which is also found in cereals, is crucial for the formation and functioning of the reproductive system. In addition, B-substances are necessary for brain health, the proper functioning of the nervous system.
Source of Antioxidants
It is common knowledge that fruits and vegetables are the best sources of antioxidants. Meanwhile, unprocessed grains also contain these beneficial compounds, especially lignins. Lignins are biologically active phenolic compounds found in plants. Scientists say that these substances can reduce inflammation, they are important for strengthening the heart, lowering blood pressure and cholesterol. It is believed that lignins are a component responsible for longevity.
Supplies iron, magnesium and zinc
Spelled is a good source of nutrients. In particular, this cereal can be used as a product that restores the balance of iron, zinc and magnesium important for the body. Iron is necessary for humans as an element that prevents anemia and supplies energy. Zinc plays a decisive role for the functioning of the brain, is responsible for the health of the body at the cellular level, and is also necessary for creating DNA. Magnesium is one of the most important components that prevent cramps, improves sleep and digestion, and a deficiency of this nutrient is fraught with migraines.
The healing properties of spelled
According to American researchers, spelled is useful for:
- reducing the risk of asthma, stroke, diabetes, cardiac diseases;
- regulation of cholesterol;
- blood pressure stabilization;
- hormonal regulation;
- maintaining a stable weight;
- improving the condition of diseases of the digestive system;
- maintaining healthy bones;
- getting rid of inflammation.
Application in the food industry
Spelled has a specific taste, which is difficult to confuse with ordinary wheat flour. Yes, and you can not use dairy flour as an alternative to wheat. Since there is practically no gluten in the spelled, baking from it according to the traditional recipe will not work - the finished products will crumble.
For sale spelled, as a rule, put up in several forms:
- germination grain;
- sprouted grain;
- groats (crushed grains);
- spelled flour.
Croup is suitable for making risotto, it is added to soups and sauces. It goes well with olive oil, herbs, vegetables. In some cases, two-corn can replace rice, buckwheat, barley and other cereals. This product is also suitable for making desserts or breakfasts from spelled, milk, honey and walnuts.
Our ancestors baked bread from the spelled flour. True, according to a special recipe that is different from the modern one. Bakery from a two-kernel is not so airy and quickly loses freshness, meanwhile, crackers from it are ideal.
Sprouted sprouts are just as healthy as other types of “revitalized” grain. It has many useful properties and has found its application in the kitchens of different nations.
To bake this bread, which is completely different from the product that we buy every day in stores, you will need:
- spelled flour (500 g);
- warm water (300 ml);
- dry yeast (1 sachet);
- brown sugar (1 tbsp. l.);
- olive oil (2 tbsp. l.);
- salt (1 tbsp. l.);
In a large bowl, mix 2 tablespoons of flour, water, yeast, sugar and leave for 15 minutes until the mixture is covered with foam. Then add olive oil and the remaining flour. Knead the dough and leave it, previously covered with a clean towel, for 40 minutes in a warm place. After that, put the dough in a pan (or a special form), which previously grease with oil and sprinkle with sesame seeds. On top of the test, make a small incision (according to ancient tradition, this should be a cross). Bake in the oven, preheated to 180 degrees, for an hour. When the bread is ready, wrap it with a towel and let it “rest” for about 15 minutes. And now it's time to try spelled bread - the main food of our ancestors.
Application in cosmetology
Spelled can be successfully used not only in cooking, but also as a cosmetic. One of the most common uses is to make scrubs. The grains are ground in a coffee grinder, a little sour cream is added and applied to the skin with massage movements. Such a home remedy will help get rid of dead epidermal cells, smooth out small wrinkles, and also improve blood circulation to the skin of the face.
It is also easy to make a refreshing mask from this porridge. This cosmetic product will help improve facial contour. Mix boiled spelled with sour cream and raw chicken egg. Apply warm gruel to face and neck. Hold for about 20 minutes. They say that after the third procedure, the result will be very noticeable.
Well, as in the case of pearl barley, rice or other cereals, spawning water is extremely beneficial for the face. It can be used for washing and as a tonic. Prepare this tool is not difficult. Moreover, there are 2 ways to prepare spelled water. You can fill the grains with plain water and leave overnight. Or boil a little two-grain in a glass of water.
How to choose and store
When choosing spelled, the same rule works as when buying any other cereal. The grains should be dry, free from odors or ingredients. The packaging must be hermetically sealed with an expiration date. A real spelled can also be called emmer, farro or two-grain, but not kamut or spelled (these are other varieties of cereals). It is important to store raw grain in a dry place, it is possible in tightly closed glass containers.
Archaeologists found the oldest fossilized remains of spelled in layers corresponding to the Neolithic era. This cereal is considered one of the oldest on the planet. He entered the life of mankind in the most ancient times. And although during the last century spelled have been undeservedly forgotten, but now the interest in this unique cereal has revived again and the world has again remembered the benefits of dvuzernitsa.