Phosphorus - metalloid, translated from Greek means "luminiferous." In the human body, the compound occupies 1% of body weight and is 85% concentrated in the teeth, bone tissue. The total content of the element in the female body is 400 grams, in the male - 500 - 600.
Phosphorus was first obtained in 1669 by the alchemist Hamburg Hennig Brand during the evaporation of human urine in order to obtain a philosopher's stone. The substance formed during the experiment visually resembled wax, burned, was bright with a characteristic flicker. The new compound is called "Phosphorus mirabilis", which is translated from Latin as "Miraculous carrier of fire." The accepted designation for phosphorus is P.
There are four modifications of the trace element: white (the most chemically active, most toxic), red, metallic, black (least active), which differ in appearance, physical, chemical properties. Phosphorus is a part of nucleic acids, proteins, fats, lycetin, provides a person with energy, activates physical, mental activity, participates in redox reactions. Despite the fact that the content of the element in sea water is 0.07 milligrams per liter, and in the earth's crust - 0.1% of its weight, the compound in a free state does not occur in nature. At the same time, there are 200 minerals, which include phosphorus. The most common of them are phosphorite, apatite.
The main value for human life is phosphoric acid, which is needed for the metabolism of fats, the construction of enzymes, the synthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates. Together with calcium, the element forms tooth enamel, the bone skeleton.
The benefits of phosphorus: normalize energy metabolism; regulates acid-base balance; strengthens bones, teeth; reduces pain with arthritis; favors the growth of the body; promotes cell division; improves metabolism, glucose uptake; participates in the coding and storage of genetic information, muscle contraction, conducting nerve impulses.
Creatine phosphate and adenosine triphosphoric acid act as accumulators of the energy necessary for the life of the body. The decrease in the number of these compounds leads to the paralysis of any type of activity - from mental to physical.
Vitamins A, D, F, hydrochloric acid, iron, manganese, potassium, calcium, proteins enhance the absorption of phosphorus. Calciferol, corticosteroids, thyroxine, parathyroid hormone, estrogens, androgens, magnesium and aluminum, together with excessive sugar intake, on the contrary, reduce the concentration of trace elements in the body.
The daily phosphorus requirement for an adult is 800 milligrams. At the same time, every day in the usual menu of people there are 1200 milligrams of compound. Intensive sports, pregnancy, insufficient intake of proteins causes an increased need of the body for a trace element, which reaches 1600 - 2000 milligrams per day.
The absorption of phosphorus depends on the calcium content in the diet, the ideal ratio of compounds is 1: 1. An additional intake of a microelement accelerates the leaching of lactic acid from muscle tissue, which is especially important for athletes.
Typical causes of the development of a trace element deficiency in the body:
- Food poisoning.
- Metabolic disorder due to dysfunction of the renal tubules, parathyroid glands, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism.
- Pregnancy, breastfeeding, growth phase, increased physical activity.
- Inadequate intake of trace elements with food. Deficiency of the substance is often observed in people who eat plant foods, which grew in soil with a low content of phosphorus compounds.
- The abuse of carbonated drinks.
- Intake of calcium, barium, magnesium, aluminum. The ions of these metals, reacting with phosphorus, form insoluble compounds that remove the trace element P from metabolism.
- Chronic kidney disease.
- Artificial feeding.
Symptoms of phosphorus deficiency in the body:
- weakened immunity, frequent colds;
- periodontal disease, rickets;
- hemorrhagic rashes on the skin, mucosal surface;
- exhaustion, lack of appetite;
- obesity of the liver;
- mental illness;
- weakness, feeling of weakness;
- low concentration of attention;
- pain in muscle, bone, joints;
- dystrophic changes in the myocardium;
- memory impairment;
- irregular breathing;
- anxiety, a feeling of fear;
- changes in weight;
- numbness or hypersensitivity of the skin;
- irritability, depression.
A prolonged lack of phosphorus in the body provokes the development of arthritis, causes apathy, cramps, tremors, breathing problems, reduces performance, leads to nervous exhaustion, softening of bones.
It is better to fill the micronutrient deficiency with food or nutritional supplements. Chronic phosphorus deficiency is eliminated by means of introducing the following drugs into the patient's body: ATP, phytin, phosphokolin, riboxin, phosphrene, lecithin, sodium phosphate or phytoferrolactol.
An overdose of a microelement in the body "hits" the kidneys: the process of stone formation in them starts, in addition, anemia, leukopenia develops, bones become weaker, and there is a risk of osteoporosis.
The greatest danger to humans is the excess of white phosphorus. The increased content of the compound in the body causes headache, vomiting, a burning sensation in the stomach, oral cavity, jaundice, weakness. In chronic poisoning, the nervous and cardiovascular systems are affected, and calcium metabolism is disturbed.
Unlike white, red phosphorus is harmless. Chronic excess substances in the body causes pneumonia.
Causes of an overdose of phosphorus:
- excessive consumption of carbonated drinks (soft drinks), canned foods;
- an unbalanced diet oversaturated with protein components;
- metabolic disease.
Today, an excess of phosphorus in the human body is much more common than its lack. The reason for this statistic is the widespread use of trace elements in the food industry (E338, E340 - E343). These phosphates prevent caking, crumpling of loose food products (dry cream and milk, coffee, cocoa). In addition, the compounds provide a soft consistency to processed cheeses, do not allow condensed milk to crystallize, increase the shelf life of meat and milk products, acidify soft drinks, increasing the mass and volume of sausages.
Signs of an overdose of phosphorus in the body:
- hemorrhage, decreased blood coagulation;
- salt deposits;
- decreased immunity (leukopenia);
- the development of osteoporosis;
- minor hemorrhages on the retina;
- diseases of the digestive tract, especially the liver;
Remember, excess phosphorus causes a lack of calcium, in addition, impairs the absorption of magnesium. Therefore, to eliminate the symptoms and consequences of an overdose, doctors prescribe the use of aluminum hydroxide, which binds and slows down the absorption of phosphates.
Food products containing phosphorus
Phosphorus is an easily digestible trace element. 75% of the compound supplied with food is involved in metabolism.
At the same time, the trace element contained in seafood, fish is absorbed by 99%, in cereals and legumes - by 20%, fruits, juices - by 10%. As you can see, phosphorus from plant products is difficult to absorb by the body. This is due to the fact that it forms phytin compounds and is not released.
The main sources of phosphorus are animal products (cottage cheese, cheese, fish, egg yolk, meat). The trace element combination from cereals and legumes is poorly absorbed in the human body, due to the lack of an enzyme in the intestine that breaks them down.
|Product name||The phosphorus content in 100 grams, milligrams|
|Whole milk powder||790|
|Cheese Russian, Dutch||539|
When enriching the diet with products containing phosphorus, remember that the permissible microelement norm in the blood for newborns is 1.19 - 2.78 millimoles per liter, for adults - 0.81 - 1.45. A decrease in concentration leads to the development of hypophosphatemia, an increase in hyperphosphatemia. Therefore, the food should be balanced, select the menu in such a way as to exclude the possibility of shortage and overdose of an irreplaceable trace element.
Remember, phosphorus compounds are very important for maintaining health. They participate in energy metabolism, the construction of enzymes (phosphatases), the activity of the kidneys, heart, brain, the development and maintenance of healthy teeth, bone tissue. Currently, scientists have proved that the trace element has a beneficial effect on libido.